Immunity To Tumours
The second article of the day, the introduction is to this four page article is below. If this is what you were looking for please view the full article for free at www.jameswatts.co.uk. The full article includes treatments, specific cell responses and the immune mechanisms.
A tumour is a swelling of part of the body caused by abnormal cell growth, this occurs when the normal cell division process becomes unregulated and cells proliferate uncontrolled. This results in cloned cells of the original defective cell, leading to a neoplasm – a new growth of tissue in the body that is abnormal. A tumour at a single site is known as a benign tumour, it becomes malignant (very virulent or infections and prone to reoccurrence after removal) when the tumour cells spreads to further sites within the body and begins to proliferate at these sites. Secondary malignant growths distant from the primary growth are known as metastases.
Not all tumours are cancerous, cancerous cells are damaged cells of the patients body that do not undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), this means that their growth is no longer controlled and metabolism of the cells are altered.
Malignant tumours are named according to the tissue of origin:
- Carcinoma – Arising in the epithelial tissue of skin or internal organs
- Sarcoma – Arising in connective tissue or other non-epithelial tissue (mesenchymal cells)
- Leukaemia – Arising in haematopoietic cells or blood forming organs such as bone marrow to produce abnormal leukocytes, these also suppress the production of normal blood cells
- Germ Cell Tumours – Arising in reproductive tissues
- Blastoma – Arising in embryonic tissues
- Lymphoma – Arising in the lymph nodes
An early stage malignant tumour is called a premalignant tumour; premalignant tumours and benign tumours can often be treated with surgery alone. With malignant tumours this become much more difficult and other methods must be used in conjunction.